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SAS Tip
of the Month
August 2004
SAS, like most other computer languages, use
mathematical operators. The following table lists the
most common operators used along with their definition
and an example. Note that some operators have two or more
forms, for example the Logical Not operator that can use
either the "^", "~" or
"NOT" symbols.
Symbol(s) 
Definiton 
Example 
** 
exponentiation 
z=a**(0.5); 
^,~,NOT 
logical not 
if ^missing(z) then z=1; 
><,MIN 
minimum 
z=(x><y); 
<>,MAX 
maximum 
z=(x<>y); 
* 
multiplication 
z=x*y; 
/ 
division 
z=x/y; 
+ 
addition 
z=x+y; 
 
subtraction 
z=xy; 
,!!,¦¦ 
concatenate character values 
z='Mr. 'surname; 
<,LT 
less than 
if x<y then z=1; 
<=,LE 
less than or equal to 
if x<=y then z=2; 
=,EQ 
equal to 
if x eq y then z=3; 
^=,~=,NE 
not equal to 
if x^=y then z=0; 
>=,GE 
greater than or equal to 
if x ge y then z=5; 
>,GT 
greater than 
if x>y then z=6; 
IN 
equal to one of a list 
if x in(1,2,3) then z=7; 
&,AND 
logical and 
if x & y then z=8; 
,!,¦,OR 
logical or 
if x=1 or y then z=9; 
